What Is A Crankcase?

Are you curious to know what is a crankcase? You have come to the right place as I am going to tell you everything about a crankcase in a very simple explanation. Without further discussion let’s begin to know what is a crankcase?

When it comes to understanding the mechanics of an internal combustion engine, one crucial component that often goes unnoticed is the crankcase. While hidden beneath the surface, the crankcase plays a vital role in the engine’s operation and overall performance. In this blog post, we will delve into the world of crankcases, exploring their function, construction, and significance in the functioning of internal combustion engines.

What Is A Crankcase?

The crankcase is an integral part of an internal combustion engine, serving as the protective housing for the crankshaft, connecting rods, and various other components. It is typically a large, cast or machined metal structure that encloses the lower portion of the engine, sealing it from external elements and containing lubricating oil.

Function And Importance

  1. Enclosure and Protection: The primary function of the crankcase is to enclose and protect critical engine components, such as the crankshaft and connecting rods. It provides a secure housing that prevents dirt, debris, and contaminants from entering and damaging the internal moving parts. Additionally, the crankcase also safeguards the engine from external factors like water, dust, and extreme temperatures.
  2. Lubrication System: The crankcase houses the engine’s lubrication system, which consists of oil pumps, filters, and passages. Lubricating oil is stored within the crankcase and circulated throughout the engine to reduce friction between moving parts, dissipate heat, and prevent excessive wear. The crankcase acts as a reservoir, holding an adequate supply of oil for continuous lubrication, ensuring smooth operation and longevity of the engine.
  3. Crankshaft Support: The crankshaft, a vital engine component responsible for converting reciprocating motion into rotational motion, relies on the crankcase for support and stability. The crankcase houses the lower portion of the crankshaft, providing a rigid structure that minimizes flexing and bending. This allows the crankshaft to rotate smoothly and maintain precise alignment with other engine parts.
  4. Pressure Regulation: The crankcase also plays a role in regulating internal pressure within the engine. As the pistons move up and down within the cylinders, they create pressure and gases that need to be managed. The crankcase is designed with ventilation systems, such as breather valves or positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) systems, to control the buildup of pressure and prevent the accumulation of harmful gases.

Types Of Crankcases

Crankcases can vary in design and construction, depending on the engine type and application. Some common types include:

  1. Wet Sump Crankcase: This is the most common type of crankcase found in engines. In a wet sump system, the crankcase serves as the oil reservoir, storing lubricating oil within the same housing as the engine components.
  2. Dry Sump Crankcase: In a dry sump system, the crankcase does not store the lubricating oil. Instead, the oil is stored externally in a separate reservoir, and a pump is used to circulate the oil to and from the engine components. Dry sump systems are commonly used in high-performance and racing engines to ensure consistent oil supply under extreme conditions.


The crankcase may be hidden from view, but its significance in the operation of an internal combustion engine cannot be overstated. Serving as a protective housing, lubrication system, and support structure, the crankcase ensures the smooth functioning and longevity of the engine. Understanding the role and importance of the crankcase allows us to appreciate the intricate workings of internal combustion engines and the engineering marvels that power our vehicles and machinery.

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What Is The Crankcase In An Engine?

The crankcase is the “body” that holds all of the other engine parts together. It’s the largest part of the engine, but must be designed to be both strong and light. To keep the weight low, the brothers used aluminum to make the crankcase.

What Does A Crankcase Do?

The crankcase is the central component in the engine. It houses the entire crank mechanism including pistons, cylinders and connecting rods. Accessories, the transmission/gearbox and the engine control system with cylinder head are attached to the crankcase.

What Is The Difference Between The Crankcase And The Oil Pan?

The crankcase isdefined as the area around the crankshaft and crankshaft bearings. This area encloses the rotating crankshaft and crankshaft counter weights and directs returning oil into the oil pan. The oil pan is located at the bottom of the crankcase.

Where Is Crankcase On Engine?

The crankcase is located in between the engine block and the oil pan. It allows the crankshaft to spin, producing the torque necessary to power the engine.


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  1. What Is A Crankcase